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Burglary

Burglary normally involves stealing, but can also be entry by force as well as other means. Therefore, burglary can be defined as entry by someone who has no legal authority to be on said premises. Normally this type of incident occurs in the home, but from a legal stand point, it encompasses other areas such as auto and businesses. Being a burglary victim is a very traumatic experience, but in order to ensure proper actions are taken to minimize the loss, or to obtain help we must handle the problem in a specific manner. Being a victim of burglary is a very traumatic experience, the perpetrator not only steals your hard earned items, but they also violate your privacy. We have no control over the criminal, but we can take constructive steps to avoid burglary of our property. California and Federal law look at this as a crime of theft. It is not common for burglaries to be handled by federal law unless it is a financial matter dealing with a bank. In all criminal cases, federal law supersedes state law, regardless of the offense committed. California sees this as both a misdemeanor and a felony depending on the act of crime committed in either 1st or 2nd degree. This is also considered under the California Three Strike Law.

California Penal Code 458-464

458.  As used in this chapter, the term “cargo container” means a receptacle with all of the following characteristics:(a) Of a permanent character and accordingly strong enough to be suitable for repeated use.(b) Specially designed to facilitate the carriage of goods, by one or more modes of transport, one of which shall be by vessels, without intermediate reloading. (c) Fitted with devices permitting its ready handling, particularly its transfer from one mode of transport to another. (d) So designed to be easy to fill and empty. (e) Having a cubic displacement of 1,000 cubic feet or more.

459.  Every person who enters any house, room, apartment, tenement, shop, warehouse, store, mill, barn, stable, outhouse or other building, tent, vessel, as defined in Section 21 of the Harbors and Navigation Code, floating home, as defined in subdivision (d) of Section 18075.55 of the Health and Safety Code, railroad car, locked or sealed cargo container, whether or not mounted on a vehicle, trailer coach, as defined in Section 635 of the Vehicle Code, any house car, as defined in Section 362 of the Vehicle Code, inhabited camper, as defined in Section 243 of the Vehicle Code, vehicle as defined by the Vehicle Code, when the doors are locked, aircraft as defined by Section 21012 of the Public Utilities Code, or mine or any underground portion thereof, with intent to commit grand or petit larceny or any felony is guilty of burglary. As used in this chapter, “inhabited” means currently being used for dwelling purposes, whether occupied or not. A house, trailer, vessel designed for habitation, or portion of a building is currently being used for dwelling purposes if, at the time of the burglary, it was not occupied solely because a natural or other disaster caused the occupants to leave the premises.

460.  (a) Every burglary of an inhabited dwelling house, vessel, as defined in the Harbors and Navigation Code, which is inhabited and designed for habitation, floating home, as defined in subdivision (d) of Section 18075.55 of the Health and Safety Code, or trailer coach, as defined by the Vehicle Code, or the inhabited portion of any other building, is burglary of the first degree. (b) All other kinds of burglary are of the second degree. (c) This section shall not be construed to supersede or affect Section 464 of the Penal Code.

461.  Burglary is punishable as follows :( a) Burglary in the first degree: by imprisonment in the state prison for two, four, or six years. (b) Burglary in the second degree: by imprisonment in the county jail not exceeding one year or in the state prison.

462.  (a) Except in unusual cases where the interests of justice would best be served if the person is granted probation, probation shall not be granted to any person who is convicted of a burglary of an inhabited dwelling house or trailer coach as defined in Section 635 of the Vehicle Code, an inhabited floating home as defined in subdivision (d) of Section 18075.55 of the Health and Safety Code, or the inhabited portion of any other building. (b) If the court grants probation under subdivision (a), it shall specify the reason or reasons for that order on the court record.

462.5. (a) Except in unusual cases where the interests of justice would best be served if the person is granted probation, probation shall not be granted to any person who is convicted of a felon custodial institution burglary. In any case in which a person is convicted of a misdemeanor custodial institution burglary, such person shall be confined in the county jail for not less than 90 days nor more than one year except in unusual cases where the interests of justice would best be served by the granting of probation. (b) As used in this section, “custodial institution burglary” shall mean a violation of Section 459 on the grounds of any jail or correctional institution with the intent to steal items to use or convert for use as weapons, escape tools, or intoxicating drugs. (c) If the court grants probation under subdivision (a), it shall specify the reason or reasons for such order on the court record. (d) Any person convicted of custodial institution burglary shall serve his or her sentence, including enhancements, consecutive to any other sentence in effect or pending. The felony sentence shall be calculated under Section 1170.1.

463.  (a) Every person who violates Section 459, punishable as a second-degree burglary pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 461, during and within an affected county in a “state of emergency” or a “local emergency” resulting from an earthquake, fire, flood, riot, or other natural or manmade disaster shall be guilty of the crime of looting, punishable by imprisonment in a county jail for one year or pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170. Any person convicted under this subdivision who is eligible for probation and who is granted probation shall, as a condition thereof, be confined in a county jail for at least 180 days, except that the court may, in the case where the interest of justice would best be served, reduce or eliminate that mandatory jail sentence, if the court specifies on the record and enters into the minutes the circumstances indicating that the interest of justice would best be served by that disposition. In addition to whatever custody is ordered, the court, in its discretion, may require any person granted probation following conviction under this subdivision to serve up to 240 hours of community service in any program deemed appropriate by the court, including any program created to rebuild the community.

For purposes of this section, the fact that the structure entered has been damaged by the earthquake, fire, flood, or other natural or manmade disaster shall not, in and of itself, preclude conviction. (b) Every person who commits the crime of grand theft, as defined in Section 487, except grand theft of a firearm, during and within an affected county in a “state of emergency” or a “local emergency” resulting from an earthquake, fire, flood, riot, or other natural or unnatural disaster shall be guilty of the crime of looting, punishable by imprisonment in a county jail for one year or pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170. Every person who commits the crime of grand theft of a firearm, as defined in Section 487, during and within an affected county in a “state of emergency” or a “local emergency” resulting from an earthquake, fire, flood, riot, or other natural or unnatural disaster shall be guilty of the crime of looting, punishable by imprisonment in the state prison, as set forth in subdivision (a) of Section 489. Any person convicted under this subdivision who is eligible for probation and who is granted probation shall, as a condition thereof, be confined in a county jail for at least 180 days, except that the court may, in the case where the interest of justice would best be served, reduce or eliminate that mandatory jail sentence, if the court specifies on the record and enters into the minutes the circumstances indicating that the interest of justice would best be served by that disposition. In addition to whatever custody is ordered, the court, in its discretion, may require any person granted probation following conviction under this subdivision to serve up to 160 hours of community service in any program deemed appropriate by the court, including any program created to rebuild the community. (c) Every person who commits the crime of petty theft, as defined in Section 488, during and within an affected county in a “state of emergency” or a “local emergency” resulting from an earthquake, fire, flood, riot, or other natural or manmade disaster shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, punishable by imprisonment in a county jail for six months. Any person convicted under this subdivision who is eligible for probation and who is granted probation shall, as a condition thereof, be confined in a county jail for at least 90 days, except that the court may, in the case where the interest of justice would best be served, reduce or eliminate that mandatory minimum jail sentence, if the court specifies on the record and enters into the minutes the circumstances indicating that the interest of justice would best be served by that disposition. In addition to whatever custody is ordered, the court, in its discretion, may require any person granted probation following conviction under this subdivision to serve up to 80 hours of community service in any program deemed appropriate by the court, including any program created to rebuild the community. (d) (1) For purposes of this section, “state of emergency” means conditions which, by reason of their magnitude, are, or are likely to be, beyond the control of the services, personnel, equipment, and facilities of any single county, city and county, or city and require the combined forces of a mutual aid region or regions to combat. (2) For purposes of this section, “local emergency” means conditions which, by reason of their magnitude, are, or are likely to be, beyond the control of the services, personnel, equipment, and facilities of any single county, city and county, or city and require the combined forces of a mutual aid region or regions to combat. (3) For purposes of this section, a “state of emergency” shall exist from the time of the proclamation of the condition of the emergency until terminated pursuant to Section 8629 of the Government Code.

For purposes of this section only, a “local emergency” shall exist from the time of the proclamation of the condition of the emergency by the local governing body until terminated pursuant to Section 8630 of the Government Code. (4) Consensual entry into a commercial structure with the intent to commit a violation of Section 470, 476, 476a, 484f, or 484g of the Penal Code, shall not be charged as a violation under this section.

464.  Any person who, with intent to commit crime, enters, either by day or by night, any building, whether inhabited or not, and opens or attempts to open any vault, safe, or other secure place by use of acetylene torch or electric arc, burning bar, thermal lance, oxygen lance, or any other similar device capable of burning through steel, concrete, or any other solid substance, or by use of nitroglycerine, dynamite, gunpowder, or any other explosive, is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for a term of three, five, or seven years.

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